12.
APPLICATIONS TO THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF ALGEBRA AND
OTHERS
12.1
Fundamental Theorem of
Algebra
Theorem 1.
(Fundamental Theorem of Algebra). A non-constant
polynomial
has at least one root.
Proof.
First note that
,
for otherwise
would reduce to a constant. Now
as
and hence there is a positive number
such that
is bounded outside
Moreover,
is also bounded on
being continuous on this compact subset of
C and so
is bounded on
C. If
has no roots, then
is also entire and so, by Liouville’s
Theorem,
is constant and therefore
is constant. This contradiction
completes the proof of the theorem.
12.2 Other Applications
We can now easily
prove a fascinating theorem about complex numbers.
Theorem 2.
Every non-constant complex polynomial of degree
has exactly
zeros.
Proof.
For every positive integer
and all complex numbers
we know that
Thus for
where
we get
Multiplying by
we get
from which it
follows that
is divisible by
.
Now, by the
Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, there is a value
such that
So
where
is a polynomial of degree
.
By induction if
is a polynomial of degree
,
then
where
and
are constants. Consequently, every
non-constant complex polynomial of degree
has exactly
zeros.
Theorem 3.
Suppose that
is a polynomial with real
coefficients. If
is a non-real zero of
, then the conjugate of
is also a zero of
.
Proof.
Suppose that
is a polynomial with real coefficients. Since
is a zero of
By conjugation,
Then
and consequently,
is a zero of
. |